Discussion on gas and electricity cooperation unde

2022-08-26
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Discussion on gas and electricity cooperation in the context of energy system reform

under the new normal environment of China's economic development, energy demand shows a trend of "low growth rate, low increment and low carbonization". As the country increases the policy intensity of energy security supply, ecological environment protection and greenhouse gas emission reduction, the short-term demand for natural gas development and utilization is insufficient, the long-term prospect is broad, and difficulties and opportunities coexist. At present, China is carrying out a new round of power system reform. The author puts forward some discussions and ideas on how to realize the win-win sales mode of natural gas and power support under the background of national energy reform

1 development direction of natural gas utilization

1.1 the long-term prospect of natural gas development is good

in the medium and long term, with China's transformation of economic development mode and adjustment of energy structure, the good prospect of natural gas development can be expected. First of all, China is rich in natural gas resources and has great development potential. According to the dynamic evaluation results of national oil and gas resources released by the Ministry of land and resources in 2015, China is rich in conventional oil and gas resources, and the potential of natural gas resources is greater than that of oil. In addition, in order to optimize and ensure the allocation of resources, China also imports natural gas from four major channels including Central Asia. Secondly, natural gas needs to be vigorously developed to control atmospheric pollution, improve the overall efficiency of the energy system, and meet the peak shaving demand of intermittent renewable energy in the future

the State Council's strategic action plan for energy development (year) proposes that natural gas consumption will reach 3600 by 2020 × 108m3, accounting for more than 10% of primary energy consumption. Natural gas development will become the main tone of energy utilization

1.2 development direction of natural gas under the background of energy system reform

the 2016 energy work guidance and relevant supporting policies of the energy administration further clarify the key direction of expanding the use of natural gas, and propose to cultivate natural gas into the main energy in China's modern energy system, and promote the improvement of oil and gas price mechanism and natural gas price marketization. In terms of power system reform, we will promote the liberalization of power sales business and incremental distribution investment business, strive to improve power peak shaving capacity, encourage the development of natural gas peak shaving power stations, and actively develop distributed energy. During the 13th Five Year Plan period, the efficient utilization of natural gas, natural gas power generation, distributed energy, gas instead of coal, and natural gas powered transportation will become the main direction of the development of the natural gas market and the new main growth point of natural gas sales in the process of industrial structure adjustment. The cooperation between natural gas and electricity will promote the rapid development of China's natural gas market

2 power system reform and development of natural gas power generation enterprises

2.1 power system reform in developed countries

since the 1990s, Britain, the United States, Japan and other countries have carried out their own power system reform. Britain and the United States have adopted a highly market-oriented reform model to separate transmission, power generation and sales functions; Japan introduced the single buyer model of limited competition, and implemented limited competition in power generation and sales on the premise of ensuring stable investment and reliable power supply. Affected by the changes in the international energy pattern, new trends have emerged in the reform of the international power system in recent years: the low-carbon energy mechanism has been gradually formed, and the development of smart electricity has accelerated in the transmission and distribution links; The financial crisis and national energy security need to promote the merger and reorganization of power assets; Economic globalization has given birth to a trans regional and transnational power market and "super electricity". The regulatory content of the power industry for monopoly behavior and the preparation and industrialized utilization technology of high-temperature superconducting blocks, wires and films of the regulator; Preparation and utilization technology of new Fe based high temperature superconducting materials; There are more and more new types of separators and carriers for high-power, high-energy storage, high-efficiency active power batteries, light solid-state fuel cells, and high-efficiency secondary batteries. In order to meet the requirements of low-carbon economic development, the experience of international power system reform lies in building a property right model of power enterprises suitable for national conditions, promoting power system reform according to law, and establishing and improving power supervision mechanism

2.2 relevant interpretation of China's power system reform

the overall purpose of China's power system reform is to reduce power costs, straighten out the price formation mechanism, orderly open competitive businesses, realize supply diversification, improve energy efficiency, and promote energy conservation and environmental protection. With market-oriented transactions as the main line, the main structure is to "control the middle and let go of both ends", and the power consumption of the whole society will no longer be purchased and sold by power companies. The relevant reform policies on the power selling side propose to open the power selling business to social capital, cultivate the market players on the power selling side in multiple ways, introduce competition in the links of power generation and distribution, and users directly buy electricity from power plants or power selling companies. On the one hand, it is clear that priority should be given to opening power generation enterprises with high energy efficiency, low emissions and water conservation, as well as users whose unit energy consumption and environmental emissions meet national standards and industrial policies. On the other hand, users with distributed power generation are allowed to engage in market-oriented power sales business, and technological innovation such as energy interconnection and distributed energy is increased to form a good atmosphere of interaction between supply and demand

add a small amount of watch oil. 2.3 development opportunities of natural gas power generation enterprises in the reform of the power system

natural gas power generation or natural gas distributed energy projects, the utilization rate of natural gas energy can reach about 70%, much higher than the general utilization rate of natural gas energy, which is 30% - 40%. At the same time, gas-fired power plants have the characteristics of rapid startup and shutdown and flexible operation. The China natural gas development report (2016) points out that the development direction of China's natural gas power generation in the future mainly includes three aspects: ① orderly development of natural gas peak shaving power stations to improve the level of energy integration; ② Develop natural gas cogeneration to improve environmental quality; ③ Develop natural gas distributed energy, improve energy quality, and improve the comprehensive utilization efficiency of natural gas. Natural gas power generation will become the main driving force for the development of the natural gas market. It is estimated that by 2020, the installed capacity of natural gas power generation will account for more than 5% of the total installed capacity of China's power supply; By 2030, we will strive to double this target. Natural gas power generation industry is ushering in good development opportunities, and gas power synergy has become a large-scale development trend in China in the future

3 possibility of cooperation between natural gas sales enterprises and natural gas power generation enterprises

3.1 peak demand differences in light and peak seasons are complementary

during winter and spring heating periods, natural gas demand increases rapidly. Especially in recent years, with the opening of the "coal to gas" winter heating mode in the north, the seasonal peak valley difference in national natural gas demand is becoming more and more obvious. Take Beijing as an example, its summer demand is 600 × About 104m7/d, while the normal demand in winter is more than 7200 × 104m7/d, the seasonal peak valley difference is nearly 1:13. In Sichuan and Chongqing, the most mature natural gas market in China, the seasonal peak valley difference after peak shaving of gas supply in 2016 was about 1:1.4. With the comprehensive deepening of coal to gas conversion, it is expected that the seasonal peak difference of natural gas will further increase

unlike natural gas consumption, the highest peak of seasonal power consumption in Sichuan and Chongqing occurs in summer. Taking the main urban area of Chongqing as an example, the peak power load in summer 2016 reached 1800 × 104 kW, with the peak valley difference ratio of spring and autumn level stability period of about 1:1.8. In natural years, the peak season of electricity consumption is in the off-season of natural gas consumption. Taking advantage of the peak demand difference between electricity and natural gas in light and peak seasons, it is feasible to use natural gas to generate more electricity in summer and autumn. Through energy form conversion, it can better meet the market energy demand and promote the common growth of natural gas and electricity sales. From the perspective of market demand, it is feasible

3.2 the seasonal price difference of natural gas provides economic feasibility for power generation enterprises

in order to improve the marketization of natural gas prices, the national development and Reform Commission issued relevant documents on seasonal fluctuation of natural gas prices in 2015. In winter, natural gas sales enterprises are saints who are unwilling to work. According to the sales price of alternative energy such as coal and oil, the sales price of natural gas downstream products and the degree of customer tolerance, natural gas prices rise to a certain extent, which plays a positive role in reducing seasonal gas consumption peaks. In summer, in order to effectively stimulate customers to use gas stably and realize incremental sales expansion, natural gas sales enterprises carry out off-season price promotion as soon as possible according to the principle of "high price first, large quantity preferential", so as to ensure the completion of annual sales tasks. Taking the promotion of stepped consumption of a natural gas power generation enterprise in 2016 as an example, the average price of natural gas fluctuated by 15.7% during the off-season preferential period. The production cost of the customer was reduced by about 0.07 yuan per kilowatt hour, and the production cost was reduced by 20% - 25%, which strongly stimulated the production demand of the customer. During the period, the increased natural gas consumption reached 47.3% of the total consumption of the whole year

the price adjustment and promotion of natural gas in the off-season will help the seasonal "valley filling" of natural gas sales; The power load is in the peak state in summer, and the production cost of natural gas power generation is reduced, which helps to mobilize the production enthusiasm of natural gas power generation enterprises, and it is feasible from the economic analysis

4 discussion on the cooperation mode of natural gas and electric energy sales

the off-season promotion of natural gas ensures the natural gas resources needed for power generation from the supply, and reduces the production cost of power generation enterprises from the price. Because of the large amount of relatively low-cost electricity produced by the promotion of natural gas, it also provides the possibility for large industrial customers who meet the conditions of direct electricity trading to reduce the cost of purchasing gas and electricity. As a natural gas sales enterprise, in addition to good natural gas supply resources, it also has natural gas power generation enterprises, distributed energy customers and a large number of large industrial customers who meet the conditions of direct electricity trading

the cooperation between natural gas and electric energy sales can adopt the mode of mutual promotion of gas and electricity and win-win supply and consumption in the off-season of natural gas sales. First, the way of processing with gas is adopted, and the power demand of oil and gas production enterprises is often large. In summer and autumn, natural gas sales enterprises can entrust natural gas power generation enterprises to produce and repurchase, so as to reduce the cost of oil and gas production enterprises. The second is to adopt the gas and electricity summer autumn joint sale mode to directly sell the electricity produced by natural gas and natural gas to industrial customers whose unit energy consumption, environmental protection emissions meet national standards, large-scale gas consumption in accordance with industrial policies, and direct electricity trading. Such customers generally consume more electricity, promoting the common growth of natural gas and electricity sales. Even, breaking the shackles of traditional development and creating a new business model, in accordance with the spirit of "cultivating diversified power sales entities and encouraging social capital to establish power sales companies", natural gas sales will invest in and establish power sales companies by themselves, expand the scope of sales business, engage in Market-oriented Power Sales business, and organically combine with current intelligent

technology, Internet cloud platform, distributed application mode, etc, So that natural gas sales enterprises will eventually develop into socialized comprehensive service companies

5 Conclusion

at present, China's natural gas power generation is still in the dilemma of "double low" in installed capacity and power generation. Although it is difficult to reach the level of the United States and other developed countries to replace coal power with gas power in a short period of time, with the promotion of the reform of the energy system, the electricity price and gas price mechanism based on market transactions are gradually formed, and the relevant laws, regulations and standard system are gradually improved, It can be expected that there will be broad development space in the field of natural gas power generation. The reform of energy system will promote the sustainable development of natural gas utilization and electricity, and the mode of linkage and complementarity between natural gas and electricity will become more and more mature

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