Discussion on fire safety and fire fighting Counte

2022-08-24
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With the development of national economy and the improvement of people's living standards, the requirements for clothing are constantly improving. Therefore, a large number of private textile enterprises have sprung up all over the country. Due to the fact that most of the raw materials and products in the textile industry are flammable cotton, yarn, cloth, velvet and hemp, and there is more electricity and heat consumption in the production process, Dongqing light company has built the aluminum and magnesium Industrial Park in Longjiang, Aluminum Corporation of China. The fire risk is high, the fire spread rapidly, and the fire loss is large. Based on the characteristics and current situation of the textile industry in this region, this paper briefly expounds the fire prevention and fighting, and encourages everyone

I. Basic information of textile enterprises in the jurisdiction

1. Distribution

(1) large number and wide distribution.

according to the current situation, within 230K ㎡ of the five towns under the jurisdiction of our Squadron, Zhoupu, Kangqiao, hangtou, liuzao and Tanzhi, there are more than 230 business units, including 25 textile enterprises (including clothing, bedding, twisting, etc.), accounting for 11% of the total. Among them, there are 11 key units at and above the district level

(2) long distance, easy to cause disasters.

the fire brigade cannot arrive in time. Take my squadron for example. The farthest clothing factory is about 15 kilometers away. It takes at least 20 minutes for the fire engine to arrive under normal driving. When it arrives, the fire may have developed into a violent burning stage.

2. Current situation of fire safety in textile enterprises. Foreign capital, Sino foreign joint ventures and new large Chinese funded enterprises are seriously polarized. General fire-fighting facilities are well equipped and functional, and employees have a good awareness of fire safety. However, some small and medium-sized private enterprises, or old state-owned enterprises, due to the long construction time, lack of funds, neglect of management, the safety situation is not optimistic, and there are many fire hazards. It is mainly manifested in the following aspects:

(reset the travel of the actuator to ± 50mm later 1) the plant is worn, the equipment and electrical appliances are aging and seriously rusted, the insulation layer of the wires falls off, and the wires are exposed.

(2) the fire-fighting facilities are missing, the fire extinguishers are expired, damaged and unattended, which cannot meet the fire-fighting requirements. Some outdoor fire hydrants of enterprises are rusted, or the pressure is insufficient or even anhydrous, and the water filling valve and fire pump are closed for a long time.

(3) items in workshops and warehouses are piled up disorderly, blocking passages, emergency exits, and even wall fire hydrants.

(4) the unit is small in scale and the open space in front of the building is small. Although there are fire hydrants, it is not conducive to parking fire engines.

(5) the production workshop has small space, dense machines, and too many employees, which leads to crowded aisles and corridors in the workshop. In addition, the stacking of sundries seriously affects the evacuation and escape of personnel in case of fire.

(6) some enterprises violate the rules to divide the internal structure, Cause the "room in the room, warehouse in the warehouse" in the unit; or change the use of the workshop and warehouse without authorization, the warehouse should be used as a workshop, and the workshop becomes a warehouse.

(7) the employees of the enterprise do not receive systematic and effective fire knowledge training, lack of basic fire knowledge, poor awareness of fire escape and self-protection, and do not understand the use and maintenance of fixed fire-extinguishing facilities.

(8) There is no suitable water source around the unit, which brings serious inconvenience to the fire-fighting work

II. Analysis of fire causes in textile enterprises

1. The model selection of each kind of experimental machine should meet the detection parameters of materials due to

(1) smoking. Smoking is strictly prohibited in workshops and warehouses of textile enterprises. However, some enterprise workshops have toilets or rest rooms next to them, where employees can smoke, and people move around more frequently. Once cigarette butts are thrown around, it is easy to ignite combustibles in the workshop.

(2) employees are not skilled or careless at work, and operate the machine in violation of rules and regulations, resulting in process chaos, especially under electrified and high heat processes, which is easy to cause fire.

(3) dense stacking and excessive storage are an important reason for fires. In order to save the warehouse and reduce investment, some cotton processing plants do not leave a good spacing in the warehouse according to the specifications, which is too dense. Too long stacking time will cause the temperature in the warehouse to rise, causing smoldering of cotton and eventually leading to fire

2. Natural causes

(1) fire is caused in the process of short circuit or damage of electrical equipment and wires caused by lightning.

(2) in rainy or wet weather, rainwater penetrates into equipment and wires, causing short circuit, spark or arc discharge, and causing fire

3. Material's own reasons

cotton, sponge, etc. are substances with low ignition point. As long as they encounter sparks, they may cause a fire, which is very easy to spread, and the spreading path is hidden; In addition, the packed cotton is also easy to smolder. This smoldering is often carried out slowly in a local or small range. The smoldering time is as short as several hours and as long as several days, which is not easy to be found

4. Process reasons

(1) aging of machinery and equipment. Aging machinery and equipment often produce high temperature or sparks locally, which is easy to cause textile fires. In addition, in the production process, some silk flocs are unreasonably recycled and diffuse in the air, which will cause accumulation after a long time. The poor acceptance ability of downstream enterprises is an important reason. "In case of a fire source, it is easy to cause a fire."

(2) aging wires are prone to leakage and electric sparks, which is also one of the reasons for fires.

(3) the main reason for the fire in the weaving workshop of the wool textile factory is that there is a lot of wool falling during the weaving process of the loom, especially the chemical fiber, such as piling up on the automatic device, white weaving bulb, starting switch and other electrical equipment, which is easy to be ignited by electrical sparks, and the mechanical oil shortage, friction, high heat or sparks will also ignite wool falling.

(4) the main reason for the fire in the cotton cleaning process is that the cotton mixer, cotton opener, cotton cleaner, dust removal and other mechanical equipment used in the cotton cleaning, due to the fast speed and small mechanical gap, if there are hard sundries mixed, or due to the imbalance of mechanical parts, the rotating part is lack of lubrication and other reasons, they will friction, heat and even strike sparks. If the electrical device is not used properly, it will also produce electric spark surface and cause cotton combustion. Secondly, in the process of carding and drafting, cotton fibers with high humidity will be wound on rotary parts such as leather sticks and rollers. The longer the time is, the more the winding is, the friction between them will continue to intensify, the transmission resistance will increase, and the temperature will rise, causing cotton fibers or motors to catch fire

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